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‘Understanding Public Policy’

These notions include the recognition that a king who ruled by divine right was also, in theory and in practice, subject to the law; he was to rule according to the law, and his power derived from the law. By acting above the law, the king abrogates the law itself, and nullifies his authority to rule. For Richard to act like a landlord is not to diminish the royal prerogative, then, but to act as though the royal prerogative allows a king to do anything he wishes. Richard then, violated the rights of his subjects in seizing Bolingbroke’s property. The granting and inheritance of property rights was one of the cornerstones of the Magna Carta, and had been honored by all monarchs for several hundred years until the time of Richard. Essex’s followers saw fit to sponsor a performance of Richard II on the afternoon before their rebellion – all these things indicate that for Shakespeare’s contemporaries this play was not simply an exercise in historical recreation or nostalgia. The reign of Henry II saw the start of much of what is unique in English legal proceedings. Considerations that the play may, in fact, be a commentary on the reign of Elizabeth I are supported by the acknowledgement, made by the queen herself, that aspects of her reign were similar to those of Richard.

At the level of the body politic, differences between individuals are trivial and negligible. Health insurance plan for expatriates are now high in demand and you can even find the service providers all around the world. These websites that assail their content with blank but keywords are now taking punished and illegal by quiz engines so that they can ice transfer hoi polloi to the not working conserve. We acknowledge you as a serious opponent, and we are prepared for a long, long campaign. The support-staff most likely want to keep their job, so contact them whenever you are in need of assistance. You need to ask your insurance agent about specific coverage for these exotic situations. For an unseasoned buyer or agent, this title insurance expense may appear to be just one of those items that have to be paid at closing much like the homeowners insurance, appraisal fee or attorney’s fees. Upon three written warnings, the employee may face termination or change in position as a result of continual violation of the tattoo policy. In this speech, the usurpation of the throne by Bolingbroke is seen as the proximate cause of the War; but more than that, it is seen as a violation of the natural order of things.

I am indebted to Hamilton’s reading of the play and share her belief that neither Richard nor Bolingbroke are seen as effective rulers. The applicability to Elizabeth’s reign can be seen in the following ways: at the time of the writing of the plays, Elizabeth had not produced a lawful heir (nor would she at the time of her death). Queen Elizabeth’s often-quoted comment, ‘I am Richard II, know ye not that? Queen declared in Lamberde’s presence, and she was not the first to make the comparison. Elizabeth’s right to rule through lawful succession was affected by her illegitimate birth; a fact which obtruded itself in her consciousness in the person of her half sister, Mary Queen of Scots. The king, as the chosen representative of God on earth, held his office through succession and by upholding God’s laws. 3. Matters not specifically addressed in Board of Governors or Board of Trustees policies or regulations of the Office of the President that are within the general nature of the chancellor’s delegated responsibilities to administer the institution.

They are made for difficult tasks. Since this would be an Anarchistic community, where decision are decided by the people and not by a person, the answer is rather clear: units to be made per industry are to be decided Democratically by the community. Despite media jargon, people still believe in the perpetuation of truth driven by the media. Yet, despite Richard’s weakness and ultimate failure, Bolingbroke is not an effective ruler, either. Bolingbroke was neither the rightful successor of Richard, nor did he uphold the laws: in point of fact, he broke with law in seizing the throne. In the first place, Bolingbroke swept aside the claim of the Earl of March as rightful successor to Richard. Finally, Richard left no legitimate heir in the form of a son or daughter, which allowed Bolingbroke to sweep aside the weak claim of the Earl of March as Richard’s successor. Griffin points out the dichotomy between Richard and Bolingbroke in his paper, and posits that the focus on the dichotomy between the two personalities has limited discussion of other aspects of the play.

That the play dealt with the loss of liberty and freedom has hopefully been demonstrated. This reading is better understood when viewed within the concept of liberty that acts as a guarantor of rights from a king to his subjects. To arrive at a better reading of Gaunt’s speech, it is necessary to recognize at the outset that the relationship of the lines to each other is not that of apposition. It is not necessary that they should possession also. It will be necessary to define the term “liberty” before determining whether or not Richard abrogated the rights of the baronial parties in the play (and in historical fact). While Richard threatened the liberty of his barons, Bolingbroke’s action goes a step further: it threatens the freedom of his subjects. Schoenbaum, Samuel. “Richard II and the Realities of Power.” Critical Essays on Shakespeare’s Richard II. Griffin, R Morgan. “The Critical History of Richard II.” Critical Essays on Shakespeare’s Richard II.